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Kiran’s Science and Technology for UPSC, State PSCs and Other Competitive Exams - English Akshay Agrawal (IAS) AIR-43, 2018 CONTENTS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYIN INDIA Scientific Developments in Medieval India Scientific Developments in Modern India Atomic Energy Space Research Telecom Electronics Biotechnology Information Technology Indian Military Agriculture Health and medicine Industry Policies Related to Science and Technology Science & Technology Institutional and Human Capacity Building Impact of Technology on Society Impact on Indian Society Achievements of Indian in Science and Technology Indigenization of Technology EMERGING TECHNOLOGY Superconductivity Superconductors Applications Low-Temperature Superconductivity Laser Technology Types of Laser Laser Applications Lasers in the Garment Industry Lasers in Communication Heat Treatment Barcode Scanners Artificial Intelligence (AI) Challenges in India 3D Printing 4D Printing Robotics Nano Tech BIOTECHNOLOGY AND HEALTH Definition Gene Biotechnology Genomics Genome Resource Bank Genome Sequencing Projects Human Genome Project Beyond Human Geneome:HAPMAP Project Genetic Engineering Recombinant-DNA Technology Dna Fingerprinting Genetic Modification Biotech And Medicine Pic-Spindle Transfer Surrogacy Interdisciplinary Dependency Of Biotechnology Applications of Biotechnology Advances In Biotechnology Human Health and Related Technology Outbreak Vaccine NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY Types of Nuclear Reactions Nuclear Power Reactor Types of Nuclear Reactors Light Water Reactors Heavy Water Reactors Boiling Water Reactor – BWR Pressurized Water Reactor – PWR CANDU – Heavy Water Reactor Gas-cooled Reactor Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor Fast Neutron Reactor Breeder Reactor Thorium Reactors / Thorium Fuel Cycle Liquid-Metal, Fast-Breeder Reactor Advantages of nuclear energy Disadvantages of nuclear energy Nuclear Energy in India Nuclear Power Programme Indian Research Reactors Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. Tokamak and ITER ENERGY Current Scenario Performance of Conventional Generation Conventional energy Coal Petroleum Diesel Jet Fuel Conventional Natural Gas Compressed Natural Gas or CNG Liquefied Natural Gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas Unconventional Natural Gas Tight Gas Shale Gas Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Advantages of CBM as a Fuel Methane Hydrates Hydrogen Hydropower Nuclear Power Fire Woods Non-conventional Energy Wind Energy Solar Energy Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission Grid Interactive Rooftop and Small SPV Power Plants Solar Water Heating System Off Grid Solar Heater Program Photovoltaic Cell Tidal Energy Energy from Municipal Waste Small Hydro Power Bio-Energy or Bio – fuels Liquid Bio-fuels Biomass Power and Bagasse Energy Security in India Growing Energy Demand Energy Sector in India Problems Associated With Energy Security Renewable and Sustainable Energy National Clean Energy Fund Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) TELECOMMUNICATION AND IT Information Technology Information Technology Industry in India Applications of Information Technology Fibre Optics RFID: Radio-Frequency Identification FASTag Big Data Data Mining and Data Analytics Crypto Currencies in India: Bitcoin Block Chain Telecommunication Technology Telecom Technologies Mobile Technology Display Technology Net Neutrality Current Status of Net Neutrality in India Zero-rating E- governance: Indian Perspective National Digital Communication Policy-2018 Computer Networking Types of Network Computer Software Common Malware Types Supercomputers Applications of a Supercomputer Quantum Computing Internet: International Network Cloud Computing Artificial Intelligence (AI) 3D Printing 4D Printing INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT Intellectual Property (IP) Patent Trademark Industrial Design Trade Secret Geographical Indication (GI) Copyrights International Treaties Releted to IPR Geographical Indications in India Copyrights in India Patent in India TRIPS Plus New IPR Policy DEFENCE TECHNOLOGY Present Situation of Defence Sector In India Indigenous Development And Import Indigenous Development Importance of Defence Indigenisation Benefits of Defence Indigenization in India Challenges of Defence Indigenisation in India Missile Technology Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme Marine Defence Technology INS Chakra Arihant Class Submarine Shivalik Class Frigate Delhi Class Destroyers Kolkata Class Destroyer Visakhapatnam Class Destroyer Scorpione Submarine to Carry AIP INS Vikrant Radar SPACE TECHNOLOGY Astronomy and Space Technology Universe Galaxy Solar System Space Tech Types of Satellite Orbits Launch Vehicles Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle MK3 (GSLV Mk 3) / LVM3 LVM3-X/CARE Test Flight Avatar Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Satellite Navigation System United States of America (GPS) Japan (QZSS) Russia (GLONASS) China (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System) European Union (Galileo) India (IRNSS) Remote Sensing Indian Space Research Programme Operation Shakti PSLV-C45 ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation Antrix Corporation Limited Achievements of Indian Space Program Achievements in Satellite Communication Achievements in Disaster Managements Achievements in Satellite Navigation Achievements in Climate and Environm